Humayun’s Tomb is the resplendent example which set the tone for innovations in Mughal style of architecture culminating in the Taj Mahal of Agra. The tomb situated in Nizammuddin, Delhi was built in 1570 was commissioned by the wife of the Mughal King Humayun, Hamida Haji Begum fourteen years after his death. This complex was declared a ‘UNESCO World Heritage Site” in the year 1993.
It is the first distinct example of Mughal style of architecture built by a Persian architect, Mirak Mirza Ghiyath. The tomb begins the introduction of extensive use of red sandstone in the later Mughal architectures. The tomb begins the introduction of extensive use of red sandstone in the later Mughal architectures. The interesting known fact behind this monument is that Humayun got very much inspired by Persian architecture during his exile and he himself planned to build a tomb which was later commissioned by his wife. It took 8 years to build the Humayun tomb at a cost of Rs.1.5 lacs.
The Octagonal central chamber containing four long and four short sides is surmounted by a 42.5 m double dome clad of marble which has pillared kiosks. The tomb built of ruins granite and red sandstone, uses white marble as a protective clothing and also for the flooring, trellis screens, door frames, roof space and for the main arena. It stands on a vaulted terrace eight-meter high and spread over 12000 sq. meter.
The Humayun Tomb is placed in the center of 30 acre four-square garden divided into four main parts in a Persian quadrilateral style. The entire tomb and the garden are enclosed with four rubble walls. The west and south rubble wall are the two-double storied gateways used for the entrances out of which south wall remains closed. The center of the eastern wall is occupied by a baradari and northern wall by a hammam.
The tomb was later used for the funeral of various Mughal emperors and members of the royal family consisting of some 150 graves. It has appropriately described as the ‘Necropolis of the Mughal Dynasty’. Some important names interred inside the tombs are Dara shikoh, Hamida Begum, Bahadur shah Zafar and his three princes and Humayun itself.